Arterial Blood Gas also known as ABG. ABG is used to assess the heart and lungs dysfunctions, acid-base imbalance in the body, if the oxygen is enough for the body. ABG are taken from patients that has abnormal acid-base imbalances, cardiopulmonary disorders, such as acute respiratory disorder, diabetic ketoacidosis, hypoxia, congenital heart defects, asthma, alkali ingestion, salicylate intoxication, emphysema, pneumonia, sepsis and shock.
Newborns: 60-70 mm Hg
Adults: 75-100 mm Hg
pCO2: 35-45 mm Hg
Newborns: 20-26 mEq/L
Adults: 22-26 mEq/L
O2 saturation: 96%-100%
Base excess: +1 to -2
pH: <7.2 or >7.6
Infants: <37 mm Hg or >92 mm g
Adults: <40 mm Hg
pCO2: <20 mm Hg or >70 mm g
HCO3: <10 mEq/L or >40 mEq/L
O2 saturation: <60%
If the patient has extreme abnormal results from the ABG, administer nursing intervention and also report to attending physician right away, they need immediate critical care management.
Identify correct patient's name. Explain procedure to patient and assess his understanding. Inform patient that they will draw specimen on radial site and might cause pain if a local anesthetic is not available.
Before the test, take patient's temperature. Assess patient's circulation to the wrist and hand before the radial part (area below the thumb) of the hand. Place patient's hand facing up on a pillow, and instruct patient to spread fingers downward. The nurse or pathologist can choose to put an anesthesia if it is available.
SPECIMEN REQUIRED: 2-3 ml
Apply pressure on puncture site with sterile gauze to stop bleeding. Keep pressure for 5 minutes. Label test tube with patient's name, time the specimen is collected, temperature of the patient and if patient is breathing room air, oxygen or is connected to ventilation. Fever, oxygen, and breathing can affect the results of the test.
After test, Watch out for bleeding on puncture 5-10 minutes on the first 30 minutes and check for signs of nerve impairment directly above the puncture site.
Advice patient that bruising, discomfort, and swelling may appear on puncture site. Apply warm compress to alleviate pain. May need assistance in handling infants and Children to remain still and or a mild sedation might be use to help calm down.