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Blood Typing and Cross Matching is the determination of four blood types which are A, B, AB, and O. It also helps in identifying patient's blood type in case of transfusion, donors for storing blood, compatibility between donor and recipient, mother and child blood types to prevent hemolytic disease or prepare for immusuppressive therapy (Rhogam) after pregnancy in case of blood incompatibility.
 
Red blood cells are composed of A, B, AB, or O surface antigens. The antigens produce antibodies. The genes are the ones responsible in identifying the presence of A or B antigen on chromosome 9. Red Blood Cells as A have anti-B antibodies and vise versa. Red cells AB do not have them that is why they are considered as the Universal Recipient. Type O have both, making them the Universal Donor. 
 
Anti-A and Anti-B are strong agglutinins, they destroy incompatible cells that is why when there is red hemolysis it releases hemoglobin in the bloodstream, damaging the renal tubules and may result in renal failure or death.
 
Cross-matching detects antibodies in the donors and recipients that causes transfusion reaction and destruction of red blood cells.
 
It is also use for paternity testing to identify the true father and mother of the child, and legal matters for DNA testing by the use of blood, saliva, semen, and other body fluids to connect a suspect to a crime scene.
 

Take note of patient's history of recent administration, intravenous infusion, transfusion of blood products, dextran, or Intravenous fluids that could cause cellular aggregation, agglutination. Also consider patient's history of previous transfusion, transfusion reactions, and previous pregnancies. 

Identify right patient's name, patient hospital number, and blood type. Label specimen test tube with patient's name, patient hospital number, blood type and place a blood bank wrist band on the patient with the same information. Monitor for signs of infection and inform patient of blood type as soon known.

Apply pressure to puncture site. Bruising and swelling may appear at the puncture site. After test apply warm compress to alleviate discomfort. Monitor for signs of infection.


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